L’arrivo di Gazprom

7 febbraio 2007.

Pubblicato su Altrenotizie


In un’intervista al settimanale L’Espresso, Aleksandr Medvedev, vicepresidente di Gazprom, annuncia l’arrivo del colosso russo sul mercato italiano al dettaglio a partire dal 1 aprile 2007. Arrivare sul mercato al dettaglio significa che non si tratta di forniture da Gazprom verso gli operatori di mercato italiani, ma di forniture destinate direttamente all’utente finale, alle nostre case. Con tanto di bollette. Si tratterà all’inizio solo di 100 milioni di metri cubi su 3,5 miliardi previsti. Una quantità minima quindi, poiché l’Italia consuma 76 miliardi di metri cubi di metano all’anno, ma è certamente il primo passo verso la conquista del mercato finale.
Arrivare a vendere all’utente finale è l’idea fissa della Gazprom già da molti anni: il gigante del gas, il cui pacchetto azionario è in larga maggioranza detenuto direttamente dal Cremlino, è divenuto nel tempo uno strumento politico internazionale del presidente Putin.

A rigor di logica, anche e soprattutto di logica di mercato, non c’è nulla di strano nel fatto che Gazprom venda il proprio gas ad una grossa industria italiana, o magari ad un comune capoluogo di provincia; infatti, quel che salta all’occhio è la politica, tutta orchestrata da Putin, dei diritti di transito del gas. Su questo, la politica russa in effetti danneggia gli altri operatori internazionali, favorendo Gazprom ed attuando un protezionismo spinto.
Per arrivare in Italia o in Francia, il gas russo deve attraversare diversi paesi, Ucraina, Ungheria, Slovacchia, Austria, e nessuno si oppone al fatto che Gazprom fruisca di tale diritto. Lo stesso non vale però per ENI o BP, le quali vorrebbero far arrivare in Occidente gli idrocarburi estratti nei loro giacimenti in Kazakhistan ma non possono, poiché non hanno la concessione di transito su territorio russo. L’Europa potrebbe approvvigionarsi di gas, ad esempio, in Asia centrale, Uzbekistan o Turkmenistan, dove la stessa ENI partecipa all’estrazione in alcuni giacimenti, ma la Russia non concede diritti di transito. Pertanto, Eni è costretta a vendere quanto produce in Kazakhistan a Gazprom perché non può transitare attraverso i metanodotti russi. Questo non succede per la benzina: tante aziende petrolifere estere distribuiscono carburante in Italia, senza però negare all’Agip di avere oleodotti e distributori nei loro stati di provenienza.

Questo squilibrio sui transiti è la carta che sta favorendo Gazprom, a discapito di tutti gli altri operatori. Gazprom ha quindi iniziato un vero e proprio l’attacco all’Occidente, visto che non sta entrando solo nel mercato italiano, violando palesemente le regole di base della concorrenza.

In Italia, intanto, non si adotta da decenni una politica estera energetica in difesa degli interessi del Paese in materia di approvvigionamento energetico. A voler essere precisi, se si esclude l’avventura di Enrico Mattei, l’Italia non ha mai saputo, o voluto, essere al passo con i tempi circa la pianificazione energetica. Così, mentre ancora oggi abbiamo un piano energetico nazionale che risale al 1987, ormai inadeguato al reale fabbisogno del Paese, nessun governo si azzarda minimamente a mettere le mani radicalmente nella politica energetica.

L’attuale governo si sta già caratterizzando per un particolare immobilismo in materia; infatti non ha trovato niente di meglio che proseguire, anche se con una leggera ma sostanziale rettifica, la politica energetica del governo Berlusconi, consistente nell’aprire incondizionatamente il mercato italiano al colosso di Mosca. La rettifica sta soprattutto nel fatto che Berlusconi avrebbe partecipato, anche se per interposta persona, all’affare. Non come Paese-Italia, ma con una una società privata riconducibile a lui.

Cosa offre Mosca all’Italia, in cambio della conquista del mercato del metano? In cambio Eni avrà accesso a quote azionarie di Novatek – il primo produttore privato di gas dopo Gazprom – e di Artikgas, una società che sfrutterà i ricchissimi giacimenti a ridosso del Circolo Polare Artico. C’è però un nodo da risolvere: se non cambiano le regole russe circa le concessioni sui transiti nei metanodotti, cosa se ne farà Eni del gas estratto in Russia? Non potendo esportarlo, continuerà a non restare altro da fare che rivenderlo a Gazprom, ed il circolo vizioso si riproporrà.

Al momento Gazprom non ha ancora la struttura logistica per vendere in prima persona agli utenti italiani, e ci metterà tempo per organizzarsi. In merito, Medvedev afferma che non è stato ancora deciso con quale partner Gazprom venderà il gas in Italia. Le ipotesi sono Enel, Edison, Hera, Gruppo Radici. L’affare interessa tutte le aziende italiane del settore, e tutte hanno offerto a Gazprom la propria disponibilità, mendicando – in pratica – qualche metro cubo di gas. Nonostante questo, secondo alcune indiscrezioni, sembra però che la scelta cadrà sulla municipalizzata bresciana ASM, per motivi che non sono solo tecnici.
Il principale gruppo siderurgico privato, la Lucchini Spa di Brescia, fu acquistata nel 2005 dal primo gruppo siderurgico privato russo, la Severstal facente capo a Aleksey Mordashev, fedelissimo di Putin. Quindi la presenza russa a Brescia, è già un fatto consolidato, ma per Mosca conta un altro particolare ancora più importante: le voci della prossima fusione tra ASM e la municipalizzata milanese AEM. Assicurarsi la fornitura al cuore industriale d’Italia sarebbe il ottimo colpo.

Gazprom non intende fermarsi alla distribuzione e vendita del metano. Parallelamente all’entrata sul mercato italiano del gas, il gigante di Mosca sta perseguendo l’obiettivo di acquisire centrali elettriche, e sia Enipower che Enel si sono detti possibilisti.
Sul lungo termine, quindi, Mosca potrebbe acquistare il controllo sia del gas sia dell’elettricità. In Italia si farebbe bene a ricordare che avere il controllo, parziale o totale, del sistema energetico di un Paese vuol dire controllarne a grandi linee l’economia. A Mosca questo lo sanno bene, a Roma se ne saranno accorti?

110 thoughts on “L’arrivo di Gazprom”

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  60. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

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  78. Hey there this is kinda of off topic but I was wanting to know if
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  80. Howdy just wanted to give you a quick heads up.
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