I russi ci scaldano

16 novembre 2006.

Pubblicato su Altrenotizie

L’annuncio arriva in tarda mattinata: Paolo Scaroni, amministratore delegato di Eni, e Alexey Miller, amministratore delegato di Gazprom, hanno firmato a Mosca un accordo sull’energia che prevede l’allungamento dei contratti di fornitura da parte russa alla società italiana fino al 2035, l’ingresso di Gazprom nel mercato italiano del gas e quello di Eni nel mercato energetico russo.
Nel comunicato si dice che “Gazprom estenderà la durata dei contratti di fornitura di gas fino al 2035 a Eni, che in questo modo si conferma il primo cliente mondiale di Gazprom. Nell’ambito di questo nuovo schema contrattuale Gazprom venderà, a partire dal 2007, direttamente sul mercato italiano quantitativi crescenti di gas (parte dei volumi venduti oggi a Eni), fino ad un potenziale di circa 3 miliardi di metri cubi dal 2010 e per tutta la durata del contratto”. Non significa che le bollette del gas saranno scritte in russo, ma quasi. Scaroni, si legge nella nota, ha dichiarato che si tratta di un “accordo storico.

La prima reazione da Roma è stata quella del ministro dello Sviluppo Economico Pierluigi Bersani: “Certamente si tratta di un accordo di grande rilievo. Tutto ciò che rafforza la stabilità e la sicurezza dell’approvvigionamento a lungo termine è un provvedimento importante per il Paese”. Già il 10 marzo del 2005 era stato siglato un primo accordo fra le due società dall’ex amministratore delegato Vittorio Mincato, accordo poi confermato il 16 giugno. Tale accordo prevedeva il prolungamento del contratto di fornitura di gas all’Italia dal 2017 – scadenza finora valida – al 2027 e permetteva a Gazprom l’accesso alla vendita diretta del gas in Italia in joint venture con Bruno Mentasti, ex socio d’affari di Silvio Berlusconi che ebbe numerosi incontri con il presidente russo Valdimir Putin per sostenere la necessità dell’accordo. Ma dopo le critiche che vennero fatte anche da parte dell’Antitrust italiana, l’accordo venne cancellato dalle due società il 20 ottobre dello stesso anno, quando si annunciarono trattative per la revisione dell’accordo su nuove basi.

Gazprom è l’autentico gigante mondiale del petrolio e del gas: controlla un quinto delle ricchezze mondiali di idrocarburi, ma anche una fitta costellazione di mezzi di informazione, banche, industrie, società finanziarie. Al vertice di questo “impero”, ci sono due degli uomini più vicini al presidente russo Valdimir Putin: l’amministratore delegato, Alexej Miller, e il presidente del Consiglio di sorveglianza Dmitry Medvedev che è anche vice primo ministro e capo dell’amministrazione del Cremlino.

Negli ultimi anni, la società è sbarcata anche nel mondo del petrolio, acquistando dall’oligarca Roman Abramovich la società petrolifera “Sibneft” per 13 miliardi di dollari nel settembre del 2005. E in questi ultimi mesi, Gazprom è stata protagonista di una marcia inarrestabile, conquistando partecipazioni a vari livelli nelle reti in molti paesi europei. Fra questi spicca il progetto North Stream, il maxi gasdotto sotto al mar Baltico che dovrà portare il gas russo in Germania, bypassando l’Ucraina, di cui i russi detengono il 51%. Alla guida della società che dovrà realizzarlo, scatenando diverse polemiche, è stato chiamato dallo stesso Putin, l’ex cancelliere Gerhard Schroeder.

Dopo aver conquistato la distribuzione in tutta l’Europa centrale ed orientale, con l’accordo di ieri Gazprom conquista anche l’Italia, che nel settore energetico naviga a vista dal 1987, anno dell’ultimo Piano Energetico Nazionale. Un’Italia che, anno dopo anno, non ha saputo dotarsi di un nuovo Piano, adeguato all’attuale fabbisogno energetico, non ha saputo diversificare le forniture e, trattandosi di un Paese che non ha propri giacimenti che lo rendano indipendente, non poteva che finire nelle mani di un grande monopolista. Così è stato. L’accordo non è infatti perfettamente paritario tra le due aziende, ed anche se Scaroni dichiara che la vecchia piattaforma d’accordo (non firmata) era sbilanciata, non si può non notare uno sbilanciamento anche nell’accordo appena firmato.

L’accordo, infatti, prevede la creazione di un’alleanza internazionale che permetterà a Eni e Gazprom di realizzare progetti comuni nel midstream e downstream del gas, nell’upstream e nella cooperazione tecnologica. Ma sarà Gazprom che venderà direttamente sul mercato italiano quantitativi crescenti di gas. E non poteva essere diversamente: la Russia è seconda nella classifica mondiale dei grandi produttori di petrolio subito dopo l’Arabia Saudita e prima in assoluto per il gas con una produzione di oltre 600 miliardi di metri cubi l’anno, oltre il 20% del totale. E’ anche il maggior esportatore di metano con oltre 200 miliardi di metri cubi l’anno e può contare su riserve sterminate, stimati attorno ai 48 mila miliardi di metri cubi. Da parte sua, Eni potrà collaborare con Gazprom all’estrazione di gas in giacimenti russi, al trasporto ed allo sviluppo.

Se da un lato l’accordo mette al sicuro il nostro Paese dal punto di vista energetico, senza rischi di inverni al freddo, (ma anche di difficoltà nella produzione di energia elettrica) dall’altro si tratta indubbiamente di un’altra fetta di indipendenza che se ne va. Avremo, sì, gas assicurato fino al 2035, ma solo se da Mosca non chiudono i rubinetti.

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