Non solo fosforo bianco: su Gaza l’arma del futuro

24 gennaio 2009

Pubblicato su Altrenotizie

Prima ancora della fine dell’offensiva israeliana sulla Striscia di Gaza, l’accusa di aver usato armi al fosforo bianco aveva già fatto il giro del pianeta. Secondo molti mezzi d’informazione l’esercito israeliano avrebbe fatto un uso massiccio di armi al fosforo bianco. Sia chiaro, non si vuole in questa sede smentire questa ipotesi: sicuramente è stato usato del munizionamento illuminante al fosforo, principalmente bombe ad uso aereo e proiettili per artiglieria pesante, ma siamo proprio certi che si sia trattato di fosforo bianco? Se qualcuno viene colpito da fosforo incendiato, e non è possibile spegnerlo con acqua, le parti colpite presentano tracce profonde di fusione. Le immagini fotografiche e televisive arrivate da Gaza non smentiscono affatto l’uso del fosforo bianco, ma non tutte le ferite mostrate sono compatibili con questa sostanza incendiaria.

A causa della scarsa conoscenza, in Italia come altrove, al di fuori di ambienti medici dei vari tipi di ferite, sono state indicate come “mutilazioni e ustioni da fosforo bianco” anche ferite non del tutto compatibili con questo tipo di munizioni. In effetti, come dichiarato da un medico norvegese di un’organizzazione indipendente presente a Gaza, molti feriti e molti cadaveri presenterebbero lesioni la cui origine non è sicura e non riconducibile a quelle provocate dalle armi normalmente utilizzate, come vaste bruciature, tessuti scarnificati e mummificazione dei tessuti molli; quest’ultimo tipo di offesa non è riconducibile agli effetti provocati dal fosforo bianco. Ma allora, che tipo di munizione può aver provocato questi tipi di ferite irreversibili, e che spesso hanno condotto alla morte? Il medico norvegese avrebbe dichiarato, mediante un’interposta persona per cui il condizionale è d’obbligo, di “non aver mai visto un simile tipo di ferite”.

A raccontare un’ipotesi tanto inquietante quanto plausibile è il Generale di Brigata italiano Fernando Termentini, ex comandante del Genio dell’Esercito Italiano, che ha maturato un’esperienza ventennale nel settore della bonifica degli Ordigni Esplosivi e delle mine in varie aree del mondo. Il Generale ha scritto sulla rivista Pagine di Difesa, testata di politica internazionale e della Difesa, un’interessante articolo nel quale dimostra la compatibilità delle orrende mutilazioni e mummificazioni di Gaza con l’uso di armi a microonde o al plasma.

Secondo la sua analisi, queste armi dovrebbero essere state sperimentate “in Iraq, in Libano e forse anche in occasione della prima guerra del Golfo, contro le truppe irachene in fuga da Kuwait City”. Ma di cosa si tratta? Si tratta di sistemi d’arma che non sparano proiettili, ma fasci di energia più o meno potente. Si tratta di strumenti studiati e realizzati, per conto dell’amministrazione americana, a scopo di ordine pubblico, e poi modificate per essere anche in grado di uccidere. Le armi a microonde nascono infatti come sistemi d’arma non letali a scopo antisommossa. Sono prodotte dalla Raytheon, società americana che, secondo dati del 2007, detiene il 90% delle entrate da contratti nel settore della difesa americana ed è il quarto appaltatore mondiale in questo settore per entità dei guadagni. Le armi a microonde costruite dalla Raytheon, e diffusissime in USA come in Francia, da arma anti-sommossa possono essere trasformate in armi letali aumentando la potenza della radiazione emessa.

La materia organica colpita da queste armi perde istantaneamente tutta la componente liquida, pertanto si accartoccia su se stessa perdendo volume e trasformandosi in un oggetto mummificato. Per questo motivo, le immagini provenienti da Gaza, che presentano cadaveri rimpiccioliti con i tessuti molli mummificati, le parti ossee scollate e gli indumenti praticamente indenni, ricordano molto di più un’arma a microonde, piuttosto che una munizione incendiaria al fosforo. Da notare che cadaveri in queste condizioni sono stati trovati anche a Falluja dopo i combattimenti casa per casa. Anche per quanto riguarda Gaza, non appare affatto sensato che i cadaveri mummificati siano stati resi tali da munizioni aeree o di artiglieria al fosforo: le armi a microonde sono armi corte, a cominciare dal prototipo più famoso, quel Taser che può emettere una scarica elettrica fino a 60.000 Volt; sono armi che riescono ad essere più efficaci di quelle a munizioni convenzionali soprattutto in combattimenti negli abitati, in spazi stretti come vicoli, cunicoli e locali sotterranei.

Come a Gaza, come a Falluja. Armi sicure per chi le usa, visto che non c’è il rischio di proiettili di rimbalzo, che invece normalmente c’è quando con munizioni convenzionali si spara in ambienti ristretti. Come si conclude su Pagine di Difesa, l’ipotesi delle armi a microonde è forse più condivisibile sul piano tecnico, ed anche sul piano militare, rispetto all’uso generalizzato per scopi offensivi di munizionamento al fosforo bianco.

Tirando le somme, si sono viste immagini di cadaveri rimpiccioliti fino ad essere lunghi un metro, senza segni di proiettile, senza arti o con la testa mozzata. Sono queste le testimonianze di civili e medici iracheni, o provenienti oggi da Gaza, come ieri da Falluja, come dalla battaglia dell’aeroporto di Baghdad. Sono armi leggere e maneggevoli, che possono ridurre l’uso di armi di tipo cinetico. E probabilmente sono queste le armi usate negli scontri di terra a Gaza, e non quelle al fosforo bianco. Come dicevamo, quest’ultimo, tecnicamente non può provocare sugli oggetti e sulle persone effetti simili a quelli visti, come la carbonizzazione delle sostanze organiche, quasi nessun danno ai tessuti, pochi danni alle infrastrutture. Il dubbio principale riguarda il fatto che i corpi siano disidratati senza la combustione degli indumenti o dell’ambiente circostanze.

Invece i corpi di Gaza, che come tutti i corpi umani hanno un alto contenuto di liquidi, presentano una carbonizzazione del volume organico, senza che i vestiti, l’involucro esterno, sia intaccato. Al momento, non esiste alcuna convenzione internazionale che regoli o limiti l’uso delle armi ad energia, che ufficialmente risultano essere ancora allo stato di prototipi di ricerca. Forse Gaza è stato il quarto esperimento di questi prototipi.

226 thoughts on “Non solo fosforo bianco: su Gaza l’arma del futuro”

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