L’energetico Tremonti

3 febbraio 2006.

Pubblicato su Altrenotizie

Con molta disinvoltura, quasi come se nessuno potesse intendere la grossa portata economica e politica delle sue parole, il ministro Tremonti ha annunciato la volontà di presentare un documento anti-crisi del gas al prossimo G8, durante una conferenza stampa congiunta con il ministro delle Finanze russo Alexei Kudrin.
Kudrin ha aggiunto che: “Con Tremonti abbiamo parlato di collaborazione in campo energetico e anche del gas. Sono in corso trattative delle quali non vorrei scoprire i dettagli”. Sempre il ministro russo fa sapere che “la Russia aumenterà le forniture di gas all’Europa”, che si continuerà a “cercare di risolvere i problemi della sicurezza energetica”. Da tenere presente che il colosso energetico russo Gazprom è sotto controllo statale e, sfruttando il proprio turno di presidenza del G8, il Cremlino ha tutto l’interesse ad espandere non solo il proprio mercato, ma anche il proprio peso politico. A giudizio di Kudrin sono necessarie “decisioni globali” per rendere stabili le forniture energetiche. Quanto all’emergenza di queste ultime settimane il ministro ha escluso che possano creare problemi di rifornimento durevoli.

Perchè un incontro e trattative tra Kudrin e Tremonti? Perchè è oramai imminente l’ingresso in Italia di Gazprom, a dirlo non siamo più solo noi di “altrenotizie”, che lo scriviamo da un mese, ma è stato annunciato nella stessa conferenza stampa. In cambio di cosa? In cambio di quote di mercato per ENI in Russia, ma a quanto pare non solo, infatti a fine conferenza stampa Kudrin ha aggiunto che “l’interesse a lavorare con la Fiat in Russia c’è”.

Cosa succederà con l’ingresso di Gazprom sul mercato italiano? Succederà che l’azienda russa avrà il controllo completo sul proprio gas, a monte e a valle, cioè dall’estrazione fino al fornello o alla caldaia. Magari la bolletta del gas non sarà scritta in russo (forse), ma il senso è quello.
L’Italia, da parte sua, fa un bel regalo ai russi, nonostante i giuramenti di Berlusconi che ha recentemente dichiarato di non avere fatto patti con Putin. Regala proprio l’ultimo tassello che mancava a Gazprom per completare il controllo della catena del gas, dal pozzo alla bolletta.
Non è solo una questione di soldi: è anche se non soprattutto una questione politica. Ne va di mezzo il peso geopolitico di Putin e di tutto il suo governo, in un momento storico che si incastra tra l’avvicinamento delle elezioni politiche russe e l’importanza che Mosca cerca di ottenere come interlocutrice in campo internazionale. Dall’altro lato c’è un Italia con un governo che mira, entro pochi giorni, a poter vantare successi e risultati eccellenti circa nuove quote su mercati esteri per ENI e Fiat, pertanto è disposto a dare spazio a Gazprom ben oltre la semplice importazione di gas.

Guardiamo alle cifre del gas in Italia (dati accertati del 2004). Il consumo nazionale supera di poco gli 80 miliardi di metri cubi di gas all’anno. Non è un consumo basso, è anzi altissimo, tra i più alti del mondo e che inoltre, tenendo conto della dimensione della popolazione, ci fa ottenere un consumo pro capite da record.
Si tratta infatti di cifre che ci posizionano al decimo posto nel mondo per consumo di gas ma con una seria differenza: i nove Paesi che ci precedono sono nel contempo grandi produttori di gas, e a volte anche esportatori.
L’Italia invece di gas ne ha pochissimo. Produce appena 12 miliardi di metri cubi all’anno. Questo costringe ad importarne quantità enormi: 68 miliardi di metri cubi. Queste le cifre che mostrano quanto siamo dipendenti energeticamente da Paesi esteri.
Al momento l’Italia importa da Gazprom il 35% di questa mole inimmaginabile di gas, un altro 35% lo importa dalla Sonatrach (Algeria), il resto da piccoli esportatori, tutti con quote bassissime, spesso al di sotto dell’1%, e pertanto trascurabili.
Questo quadro non durerà molto, sta anzi già cambiando: il consumo di gas importato sta aumentando, e non solo per le utenze casalinghe che stanno invece diventando una minoranza, basti pensare che nel 2005 il 47% dell’energia elettrica è stato prodotto usando metano, ma tra due anni questa percentuale salirà al 52%.
In base agli accordi Tremonti-Kudrin, questa estensione del consumo vedrà Gazprom come fornitore. Aumenta ulteriormente la dipendenza dall’estero dell’Italia nel settore energetico, nonostante quella “diversificazione delle fonti energetiche” sbandierata più volte dal governo.
Intanto, sempre a proposito di quella “diversificazione”, le energie rinnovabili (eolico, solare, ecc.) restano ferme al palo. E noi al freddo.

63 thoughts on “L’energetico Tremonti”

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