USA-Russia: accordo nucleare

9 maggio 2008.

Pubblicato su Altrenotizie

E’ stato firmato a Mosca, giusto all’ultimo giorno della presidenza di Putin, un patto di cooperazione tra Russia e Usa sul nucleare civile. L’accordo, lo riferisce l’agenzia Itar-Tass, è stato firmato dal capo della società nucleare russa Sergei Kirienko e dall’ambasciatore Usa a Mosca William Burns, prevede un’ampia cooperazione fra i due Paesi per l’uso dell’energia atomica a scopi industriali, in aree come la vendita e lo stoccaggio dell’uranio, nonchè un lavoro comune su programmi avanzati per i reattori. Una volta ex nemici, Washington e Mosca siglano così un accordo storico di cooperazione in un settore delicato come quello dell’energia nucleare. Nel giorno in cui lascia il Cremlino a Dmitry Medvedev, Vladimir Putin incassa un risultato importante in termini di fiducia da parte dell’Occidente. L’accordo permetterà alle parti di formare joint venture nel settore e di trasferirsi l’un l’altra tecnologie e materiali nucleari, aprendo la strada a quelle che Kiriyenko ha definito “grandi opportunità economiche” per entrambi.

Il terreno per l’intesa era stato preparato da Putin e George W. Bush nel vertice dello scorso anno a Kennebunkport ed è stato di nuovo discusso ed esaminato a Soci, un mese fa, nel corso del’ultimo incontro tra i due sul Mar Nero. Secondo un documento distribuito dalla delegazione americana, l’accordo, della durata prevista di 30 anni, fornisce ai due Paesi “un quadro per sviluppare l’energia nucleare a fini pacifici e fare progredire l’energia nucleare nel mondo rafforzando la nostra autorità comune nella prevenzione della proliferazione nucleare”.

Intanto il gruppo Tvel, il principale produttore russo di combustibile nucleare, annuncia che entro il 2020 gli ordinativi di attrezzature nucleari russe dovrebbe raggiungere i 35,2 miliardi di euro. Kirill Komarov, vice-direttore della holding nucleare statale Atomenergoprom, ha detto che “il Piano generale elaborato per un periodo che va fino al 2020 prevede la messa in produzione di 26 reattori nucleari in Russia e la costruzione di 12 reattori all’estero. Il Programma federale di sviluppo del nucleare civile esige che i costruttori di equipaggiamenti nucleari ed energetici effettuino investimenti importanti in vista di accrescere le loro unità produttiva e migliorare il livello tecnologico generale del loro materiale”. Nel 2007 il nucleare ha fornito in Russia elettricità per 155 miliardi di Kwh, e nel primo trimestre del 2008 si è avuta un’ulteriore crescita del 5,9%. Evidentemente per i russi Chernobyl è non solo ormai fuori dai confini dell’impero, ma anche una sciagura dimenticata.

La Russia ha vaste risorse di uranio disponibili, ed ora potrà accedere al mercato americano, finora chiuso o fortemente limitato. Il documento, infatti, avrebbe dovuto essere firmato già l’anno scorso, ma l’opposizione di alcuni membri del Congresso USA ha fatto slittare i tempi. I senatori statunitensi accusavano Mosca di cooperare con l’Iran e, di conseguenza, avevano messo il veto a qualunque accordo su temi sensibili, tra i quali il nucleare. Negli ultimi mesi però, grazie al lavoro delle rispettive diplomazie e alla recente apertura della Russia allo scudo balistico in Europa, la situazione è cambiata e le posizioni all’interno del Congresso si sono ammorbidite. Anche se non ci si aspettano sorprese, prima che l’accordo possa avere valore dovrà passare al vaglio dei rispettivi Parlamenti che hanno 90 giorni per bloccarlo, mediante una mozione di veto da approvare a maggioranza assoluta.

“Il valore potenziale di questa intesa corrisponde al valore di tutti i contratti che potrebbero essere firmati tra i due Paesi nella sfera del nucleare civile: si parla di miliardi di dollari”, ha affermato all’agenzia Associated Press una fonte russa. Soprattutto perché Mosca ha appena costituito una enorme compagnia di stato, l’Atomenergoprom, sul modello di Gazprom, che si propone di competere con le maggiori compagnie nucleari nel mercato mondiale. Nel mondo esistono oggi già dei grandi colossi del nucleare, come la partnership tra la francese Areva e la tedesca Siemens Ag, la giapponese Toshiba, e la Ge Hitachi, e una joint venture tra la General Electrice la Hitachi. Sul mercato ora si affaccia anche la Russia, di prepotenza, con la forza dei suoi giacimenti e delle sue riserve di uranio, che al momento risultano essere superiori alle 870mila tonnellate, escluse quelle strategiche di materiale fissile arricchito e quelle di plutonio, alle quali vanno aggiunte un altro milione derivato da diversi accordi in tutto il mondo.

Quindi, non mancano né le materie prime né la richiesta, infatti Mosca vende già uranio agli Usa nel programma “Megaton to Megawatts” e recentemente ha concluso trattative con altri Paesi. Così, diventa all’improvviso estremamente probabile che nel prossimo futuro possano nascere affari di proporzioni gigantesche. E che molti “nemici” si trasformino improvvisamente in grandi amici e partner. Come appena avvenuto per USA ed ex-URSS.

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