Il futuro nucleare di Tremonti

17 aprile 2008

Pubblicato su Altrenotizie e Carta

Le elezioni sono passate, il governo ancora deve nascere, ma già da qualche giorno Giulio Tremonti si sta lasciando andare a fantasie nucleari abbastanza pericolose, in quanto coinvolgerebbero altri Paesi nel modo peggiore possibile: scaricando sulle loro popolazioni i costi ambientali e sanitari, oltre ai rischi nucleari, della produzione elettrica destinata all’Italia. Nei giorni scorsi, la società energetica milanese Edison ha presentato uno studio di previsione sul fabbisogno di energia elettrica che tiene conto del rapporto tra “consumi attesi” e “produzione disponibile”: secondo le previsioni, nel 2030 l’Italia avrà necessità di un fabbisogno di 545 Twh di elettricità. Pertanto, la produzione attuale non basta. Da un lato Enel punta molto – anche se non tutto – sul carbone, in quanto via più rapida e meno costosa; dall’altro – ma è una via che ha un difetto – c’è da rispettare il vincolo posto dalla UE all’Italia, che prevede di ridurre del 20 per cento le emissioni rispetto al 1990: pertanto le centrali elettriche italiane non potranno produrre più di 88 milioni di tonnellate di anidride carbonica. Edison, che al 50% è di proprietà della francese EDF, conclude il proprio studio dichiarando di vedere il nucleare come la soluzione all’approvvigionamento energetico.

A fare immadiatamente eco a Edison è Giuliano Zuccoli, presidente del Consiglio di Gestione di A2A, nata dalla fusione di AEM Milano e ASM Brescia, ma anche membro del Cda di Edison. Zuccoli è convinto che l’ora del nucleare debba scoccare nuovamente in Italia in tempi brevi. In un’intervista al Corriere Economia, ha dichiarato che “oggi in Italia servono 24 autorizzazioni, che impegnano almeno 5-6 anni prima di aprire il cantiere. Dovremmo concentrarle in 2 o 3 passaggi sui modelli americano o francese, così da dimezzare i tempi. Poi in 4-5 anni si costruisce”.

Zuccoli considera il nucleare “una tecnologia di transizione per i prossimi 30 anni” e ritiene che serva per soddisfare “un quarto del fabbisogno nazionale: 80 miliardi di kwh, fatti da 3-4 centrali di 10.000 mw in totale”. Questa operazione avrebbe un costo di “20 miliardi di euro”, spiega Zuccoli, secondo il quale l’investimento potrebbe essere attuato da un consorzio di produttori, come Enel, A2A, Edison, E.On Italia o altri. Poi le centrali verrebbero gestite da Enel, perchè è “il soggetto dove è rimasta la maggior competenza, e dunque meglio in grado di rapportarsi con le agenzie internazionali”.

In realtà la competenza di Enel, fermatasi nel 1987 con il referendum che bocciava il nucleare in Italia, si è sviluppata solo parzialmente e solo all’estero, essenzialmente basata su vecchie tecnologie sovietiche come in Slovacchia ed in Bulgaria, dove sta realizzando degli impianti bastati sul VVER sovietico. Oltre questo, resterebbe il problema di sempre: il dove localizzare le centrali nucleari, in un Paese che ha un territorio pieno di zone densamente abitate, di regioni sismiche e vulcaniche, e che non è neanche dotato di un sito nazionale ove collocare le scorie.

Su questo piano si muove Giulio Tremonti, che ha già ideato un progetto che lui stesso chiama “del nucleare delocalizzato”. Il progetto era stato presentato pochi giorni prima delle elezioni, ma ora con il terzo Governo Berlusconi che si andrà a formare, sembra che gli italiani abbiano automaticamente accettato, votando PDL, che il nucleare sia una delle fonti di energia da usare per il nostro Paese. Contemporaneamente, si sa che in caso di costruzione reale di una centrale, sarebbero ben pochi i cittadini disposti a tenerla vicino casa.
L’idea di Tremonti è di realizzare le centrali che daranno energia all’Italia in altri territori, da sfruttare, ai quali relegare scorie e costi ambientali, magari in quell’Albania che regala immigrati clandestini.

Già, proprio così: costruire su territorio albanese le nuove centrali nucleari. La proposta, che è nel programma della coalizione che sta per governare l’Italia, rischia tra qualche tempo di diventare realtà. D’accordo con lui anche Casini, che si è sempre professato pro-nucleare e anche disposto a rinnegare il referendum che abrogava l’installazione di centrali nucleari nel nostro territorio. Quindi, il referendum potrebbe essere aggirato costruendo le centrali in Albania e portando l’energia prodotta verso l’Italia tramite un elettrodotto sotto l’Adriatico.

In disaccordo con tutta la linea è Gianni Silvestrini, direttore scientifico del Kyoto Club, che in un editoriale della newsletter mensile “KyotoClubNews” dichiara: “Entro il 2012 la produzione addizionale di elettricità solare ed eolica mondiale dovrebbe essere almeno quattro volte superiore rispetto al contributo aggiuntivo netto del nucleare”. “Considerando le tendenze dei prossimi anni”, prosegue Silvestrini, “si evidenzia come, in valori assoluti, vento e sole supereranno la nuova potenza nucleare installata. Ma c’è un altro elemento che viene preso in considerazione e cioè la chiusura di 11 centrali nucleari che potrebbe portare il fotovoltaico a sfiorare una quota pari al 40 per cento del contributo netto nucleare”.

Sul piano scientifico e tecnologico, intanto, l’industria nucleare torna a far discutere. Questa volta perché Peter Henderson, ricercatore dell’Università di Oxford, ha pubblicato uno studio sull’impatto dei sistemi di raffreddamento delle centrali costiere britanniche sulla popolazione marina. La ricerca
non porta buone notizie. Secondo Henderson l’industria nucleare uccide ogni anno miliardi di pesci in Gran Bretagna, andando così a minare la sopravvivenza delle specie. Secondo quanto si legge sul Times, che riporta la notizia, l’impatto può essere così grave che, nelle zone più colpite dal fenomeno, le percentuali di mortalità sono equivalenti alla metà di quelle prodotte dalla pesca
a fini commerciali.

Gli impianti di raffreddamento pompano dal mare grandissime quantità di acqua: un impianto nucleare estrae anche 60 metri cubi di acqua al secondo, fino ad un record di 120 per la centrale di Gravelines sulla costa settentrionale francese. L’acqua che è stata utilizzata per raffreddare i reattori viene poi pompata nuovamente nel mare. Essendo stata scaldata, essa attrae numerose specie marine che vengono di conseguenza catturate dal sistema di immissione e uccise. Il pericolo è maggiore per i pesci di taglia piccola o giovani che superano il vaglio di un cm ed entrano nei tubi di raffreddamento. Qui vengono scaldati, clorurati e ricevono anche piccole dosi di radiazioni. Secondo Henderson, il canale della Manica è la regione più colpita dal fenomeno. Fenomeno che tra alcuni anni potrebbe anche presentarsi nel già martoriato Adriatico, visto che si tratta di un mare chiuso, se andrà in porto il progetto di Tremonti.

Infine, proprio il 15 aprile, il Consiglio per la sicurezza nucleare (Csn) spagnolo ha avviato controlli su circa 700 persone, dopo la comunicazione da parte del gruppo elettrico Endesa di una fuga radioattiva nella centrale nucleare di Ascò, nella provincia di Tarragona. La fuga si è prodotta in novembre durante un’operazione di manutenzione ed è stata resa nota solo il 4 aprile. Secondo il Csn l’entità della fuga sarebbe stata minimizzata nella comunicazione di Endesa. In una dichiarazione rilasciata a El Pais, il vicedirettore della protezione radiologica al Csn, Manuel Rodriguez, ha affermato che la fuga “è stata 100 volte superiore a quanto la centrale ha dichiarato”. Delle sanzioni potrebbero essere prese contro il gruppo Endesa per avere fornito, secondo il Csn, “informazioni incomplete”. Probabilmente questo è un problema che non toccherà mai l’Italia, visto che eventuali fughe radioattive interesseranno un giorno l’Albania.

38 thoughts on “Il futuro nucleare di Tremonti”

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