Come bruciare ecoballe false

9 marzo 2008

pubblicato su Altrenotizie

“Per accelerare le iniziative finalizzate al superamento dello stato d’emergenza, in particolare, per consentire la messa in esercizio in tempi rapidi dell’impianto di termodistruzione sito nel comune di Acerra, è autorizzato il trattamento e lo smaltimento di rifiuti contraddistinti dai codici CER 191212, 190501 e 190503 presso detto impianto, assicurando comunque il rispetto dei livelli delle emissioni inquinanti già fissati nel provvedimento di autorizzazione.” E’ il testo dell’Articolo 4 dell’Ordinanza del presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri numero 3657 del 20 febbraio scorso, ed appena pubblicata in Gazzetta Ufficiale. Quei numeri che possono apparire strani, chiamati codici CER (Catalogo Europeo Rifiuti), sono i codici che identificano le orami famose ecoballe di rifiuti campani, la frazione organica stabilizzata ed il compost prodotti da FIBE. Già, proprio quelle famose ecoballe che non possono essere bruciate in nessun impianto distruttore, e che hanno già dato vita ad un processo penale tuttora in corso presso il Tribunale di Napoli.

Il decreto del presidente del Consiglio, in pratica, autorizza a bruciare ad Acerra, quando e se il termodistruttore sarà realizzato, proprio quelle ecoballe che come hanno dimostrato sia la chimica, sia la termodinamica, sia la magistratura, non possono essere bruciate. Il motivo è semplice: perchè bruciandole è matematicamente impossibile assicurare quel rispetto delle emissioni inquinanti a cui fa riferimento lo stesso Articolo 4, che in pratica assicurare un qualcosa di inassicurabile.

Quelle ecoballe non sono a norma per umidità, per potere calorico e soprattutto per il contenuto. Sono il simbolo del disastro industriale che in Campania è andato a sommarsi all’emergenza rifiuti. La storia del disastro industriale inizia nel 1999, quando fu disposta l’aggiudicazione in via provvisoria dell’affidamento del servizio smaltimento rifiuti per la provincia di Napoli ad un’associazione temporanea d’impresa composta da Fisia Italimpianti S.p.A., Babcock Kommunal Gmbh, Deutsche Babcock Anlagen Gmbh, Evo Oberhausen AG, Impregilo S.p.A., poi denominata Fibe, dalle iniziali delle imprese costituenti. Nel 2000, il commissariato aggiudicò l’affidamento in via definitiva per l’intero territorio regionale campano.

Negli anni successivi Fibe ha messo in esercizio 7 impianti per la produzione di combustibile derivato dai rifiuti (Cdr), risultato poi irregolare ad ogni controllo effettuato, combustibile che non può essere bruciato in alcun impianto italiano. Di conseguenza, ci sono sette milioni di tonnellate di Cdr disseminate per l’intero territorio regionale, un territorio invaso, ad un ritmo che in passato è arrivato a due ettari al mese, da rifiuti urbani sotto forma di Cdr, oltre che dai rifiuti della camorra.

Ci sono intere aree, prima tra tutte quella di Taverna del Re, nel territorio di Giugliano in Campania, dove il paesaggio è stato mutato, ed oggi si assiste alla presenza di innumerevoli montagne di ecoballe non utilizzabili e non smaltibili. Fibe l’ha prodotto, ma il commissariato, guidato all’epoca dal presidente Bassolino, aveva il ruolo di controllo su tutto il ciclo dei rifiuti urbani. Secondo la procura di Napoli, Bassolino avrebbe “sorvegliato”, in veste di commissario straordinario, in modo “distratto e compiacente”, lasciando la FIBE libera di gestire i Cdr senza controlli, producendo ecoballe non a norma.

In particolare i giudici sottolineano come la struttura commissariale, non solo chiudeva “almeno un occhio” sulle lampanti violazioni delle più elementari norme di sicurezza e di tutela della salute e dell’ambiente nei 7 impianti di Cdr campani ma, tramite una lunga serie di “artifizi e raggiri”, “rappresentavano falsamente la produzione di compost e Cdr conforme ai contratti stipulati con le aziende vincitrici della gara”.

Disastro industriale, dunque. Per bruciare, ammesso che da qualche parte si possa, tutte le ecoballe campane in impianti molto grandi e che si occupino solo di loro, occorrerebbero non meno di 20 anni, cosa chiaramente improponibile. Così la Campania è finita in un baratro dal quale difficilmente potrà uscire. Impossibilitato a trovare soluzioni ragionevoli, il Governo ha reputato opportuno ora stabilire che si possano bruciare le ecoballe non a norma.

Il Comune di Acerra ha impugnato dinanzi al Tar del Lazio l’ordinanza del presidente del Consiglio. La decisione è stata assunta dalla giunta, guidata dal sindaco Espedito Marletta, e riguarda proprio l’articolo 4. “Tale disposizione”, dice il sindaco, “è palesemente illegittima in quanto il costruendo inceneritore di Acerra non può essere alimentato con tali tipologie di rifiuti. L’aggiornamento del parere di compatibilità ambientale reso dal ministero dell’Ambiente il 9 febbraio 2005 prevede specifica e vincolante prescrizione in tal senso, con divieto di utilizzare combustibile non avente le caratteristiche adeguate”.

Già in passato il TAR, con una sentenza, aveva stabilito che l’impianto di Acerra può “trattare unicamente Cdr del tipo previsto dalla normativa vigente”. Sempre secondo il sindaco di Acerra, “l’utilizzo per l’alimentazione dell’inceneritore di rifiuti e non invece di Cdr conforme alla legge costituisce modifica delle condizioni dell’autorizzazione e una modifica sostanziale dell’impianto stesso”. Per Marletta modificare un dato base dell’impianto comporta “violazione dei principi di precauzione e prevenzione e mette in pericolo l’ambiente e la salute dei cittadini”.

Il Comune di Acerra, che ha già impugnato l’ordinanza che autorizza agevolazione tariffarie per la vendita dell’energia elettrica prodotta dal termovalorizzatore, sta valutando eventuali iniziative da adottare in sede penale davanti alla Commissione Europea.

42 thoughts on “Come bruciare ecoballe false”

  1. L’aspetto più tragico di questa vicenda è la trasversalità di consensi ad un progetto, quello della termodistruzione, che non risolve minimamente il dramma in cui versa la Campania. Con la formula “termodistruttore” si è scelta la via dell’apparenza, privilegiando la risoluzione mediatica della crisi, in virtù di interessi prettamente economici, a discapito della salute dei cittadini. Far morire lentamente milioni di cittadini, mediaticamente, non è eclatante come vedere cumuli di spazzatura riversi nelle strade. Le istituzioni, abbandonando i cittadini campani, hanno segnato il punto di non ritorno.

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