Disastro ambientale a Ischia

30 dicembre 2007

pubblicato su Altrenotizie

Tutto è iniziato l’estate scorsa, per la precisione il 14 giugno 2007, quando è avvenuto un banale incidente, di quelli che si sa che prima o poi avvengono: la rottura di uno dei 4 cavi elettrici sottomarini ad alta tensione dell’Enel, nel tratto tra Cuma, sulla terraferma, e Lacco Ameno, sull’isola di Ischia. La rottura è avvenuta per un banale arpionamento dell’ancora di una imbarcazione che non è mai stata identificata. Il problema vero è nato dal fatto che all’interno del cavo c’era un canale riempito di olio in pressione, con una sezione di 18 millimetri. La rottura del cavo ha causato la dispersione in mare di circa 34 tonnellate di olio fluido contenente PCB, a ridosso dell’Area Marina Protetta “Regno di Nettuno”. L’Agenzia Regionale Protezione Ambiente ha accertato, mediante analisi su campioni d’acqua prelevati il 19 luglio scorso presso lo stabilimento balneare “Bagno Vito” di Lacco Ameno, la presenza di PCB (policlorobifenili) pari a 0.112 mg/l. Questo valore, è 186 volte superiore al valore massimo previsto come standard di qualità ambientale per le acque superficiali. Non si tratta quindi di un valore che sfora il limite “appena un poco”. Ma lo sfora 186 volte.

Esattamente di fronte all’area dove è avvenuta la rottura del cavo, c’è la spiagga di Suor Angela, nel Comune di Casamicciola Terme. Anche questa zona, spiaggia compresa, risulta oggi essere fortemente inquinata da PCB. I rilievi effettuati dall’ARPAC hanno interessato esclusivamente la ricerca di PCB, escludendo ogni altra sostanza inquinante che potrebbe essere fuoriuscito.
Nei giorni successivi, si rompe un cavo per la seconda volta. Nella stessa zona di mare. Altra perdita, stimata al 4 dicembre scorso in circa 18 tonnellate.

Quasi tutti gli impianti di cavi sottomarini in Italia sono “a tenuta” mediante olio. Fisicamente, se si registra un abbassamento di pressione dell’olio, significa che c’è una perdita nel tratto sottomarino, pertanto nelle stazioni situate ai capi dei cavi si pompa altro olio, per consentire sia di salvare il cavo ad alta tensione da un’eventuale contatto con l’acqua sia di individuare il punto in mare con della fuoruscita di olio. Così avviene in tutti i mari, così è avvenuto anche a Lacco Ameno, dove è stato continuamente pompato nuovo olio nei cavi.

Sommando gli effetti delle due rotture, secondo l’ultima relazione del comandante dei vigili del fuoco di Lacco Ameno, datata al 4 dicembre scorso, la fuoriuscita di olio con PCB, in un impianto in pressione e a tenuta della lunghezza di circa 20Km, è stata stimata in circa 52 tonnellate. Contenenti i pericolosi PCB, in grado di persistere nell’ambiente, non essendo biodegradabili, e di accumularsi sia nei terreni di superficie e fondali marini, sia negli organismi viventi.

Il disastro ambientale di Ischia è aggravato dall’età dei cavi. Si tratta infatti di conduttori risalenti al 1987, e all’epoca i limiti di legge vigenti di tolleranza di PCB erano decisamente più alti rispetto ad oggi. Solo l’anno dopo, nel 1988, sarebbe stata vietata l’immissione sul mercato di PCB, assieme ad una drastica riduzione per gli impianti ancora in esercizio. Qui saltano all’occhio una serie di irregolarità che, se fossero state sanate per tempo, avrebbero permesso di evitare il disastro.

Tanto per cominciare, la posa dei cavi viene fatta dall’Enel nel 1992, quindi già con la legge dell’88 in vigore. Si tratta quindi di cavi palesemente irregolari. L’operazione di posa in opera terminò il 26 novembre 1992, quando i cavi giunsero a Ischia, occupando 69.000 metri quadri del demanio marittimo, senza che risulti alcuna concessione alla posa e al mantenimento dei cavi stessi. Come ricorda l’avvocato Cocozza, per conto del Comune di Casamicciola Terme, “l’Enel non è in possesso dell’autorizzazione all’esercizio della linea elettrica Cuma – Lacco Ameno o di un decreto regionale di autorizzazione”.
Osservando gli atti esistenti, risulta che l’unica autorizzazione regionale rilasciata in favore dell’Enel, limita la costruzione e l’esercizio di una linea elettrica a 150.000 Volt in cavo sotterraneo, e non sottomarino, e una cabina primaria all’aperto.

Ricordiamo che i PCB sono composti organici volatili considerati per la loro tossicità nei confronti dell’uomo, tra gli inquinanti più pericolosi. La loro stabilità li rende difficilmente eliminabili e degradabili, e presentano un pericoloso effetto di bioaccumulazione negli organismi viventi. Sono inclusi, secondo il Protocollo di Stoccolma del maggio 2001, nei cosiddetti POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants), cioè composti organici velenosi, che non spariscono per effetto delle mareggiante, anzi permangono lungo la battigia assorbiti dalla sabbia e rischiano di risalire, soprattutto attraverso il consumo di prodotti ittici, la catena alimentare, fino ad arrivare all’uomo. I PCB hanno rilevanti effetti tossici, provocano danni a medio e lungo termine quali bruciori agli occhi e dermatiti, danni al sistema immunitario, alla tiroide e al fegato.

Nonostante questo, oggi sulla parte di isola di Ischia interessata da questo nuovo disastro ambientale non risulta esistere alcun provvedimento relativo all’interdizione alla balneazione, al divieto di pesca, al piano di bonifica della zona, alla Tutela dell'”Area Marina Protetta Regno di Nettuno”

Il danno è evidente. Un’area protetta, di notevole interesse sia biologico-marino sia archeologico, ed una spiagga sono invase da PCB oltre ogni misura plausibile. Oltre al danno, c’è anche una beffa: i cavi in questione, secondo fonti ambientaliste di Ischia, “non assicurano e non hanno mai assicurato l’alimentazione dell’isola d’Ischia”. Infatti, in realtà attualmente l’isola è regolarmente alimentata con 5 cavi sottomarini a media tensione per complessivi 75 megawatt provenienti dalla stazione di Foce Vecchia, inserita ad anello con le stazioni di Lago Patria, Cuma 150/20 e Pozzuoli, che giungono alle stazioni Ischia e Forio.

Ci auguriamo che si provveda sul serio a bonificare al più presto fondali e spiagge. Altrimenti ci troveremmo di fronte all’ennesimo disastro ambientale in una regione, la Campania, già martoriata da decenni.

29 thoughts on “Disastro ambientale a Ischia”

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