Il rinnovamento della distribuzione elettrica italiana

11 dicembre 2007

Pubblicato su Altrenotizie

Di quanto la rete elettrica italiana sia arretrata, se ne è scritto da tutti i punti di vista un po’ ovunque. Non perchè l’Italia sia magliata male. Infatti, dal punto di vista del numero e della densità delle linee elettriche l’Italia non ha molte pecche. Certo, i collegamenti trasversali lungo la penisola non sono dei migliori, ma questo è dovuta all’orografia del territorio, praticamente diviso in due dalla catena degli Appennini. Nonostante questo ostacolo naturale, la copertura elettrica italiana è ottima, dal punto di vista della magliatura geografica. Quel che fa acqua è l’obsolescenza delle linee, spesso antichissime e con perdite gravi di energia lungo il trasporto. Perdite molto gravi. In pratica una percentuale non trascurabile dell’energia elettrica prodotta viene dispersa lungo le linee elettriche, e non arriverà mai a nessuna destinazione. Da oltre 30 anni. Finalmente, Terna, la società che distribuisce l’energia elettrica in Italia, ha deciso di investire un miliardo di euro in un’operazione chiamata “10 Progetti per uno sviluppo sostenibile” che prevedono lavori in 11 regioni. Per farla breve, 1200 Km di tralicci obsoleti saranno sostituiti da 450 Km di cavi, molti dei quali interrati.

L’interramento dei cavi è un passaggio importante, per eliminare grossi elettrodotti aerei che danno spesso problemi di inquinamento elettromagnetico. Ma non solo, serve anche a “recuperare” territorio, infatti oggi non è possibile fare alcun uso dei terreni situati in un piccolo raggio attorno la base dei tralicci elettrici. Per la legge italiana, è solo diritto di Terna l’usare il terreno sotto ai tralicci, per potervi accedere in occasione della manutenzione.

Lo smantellamento di ben 4.800 tralicci dell’alta tensione consentiranno quindi lo svincolo di circa 4.000 ettari di terreno, che non saranno più soggetti a servitù. Questo, in termini ambientali, significa che 4.000 ettari di terreno che prima erano non usufruibili né dalla popolazione né dall’agricoltura né dai servizi, ora potranno essere destinati ad altre funzioni, questo oltre ovviamente al fatto che sparirà qualche migliaio di tralicci.

Terna annuncia anche che “Gli interventi sulla rete elettrica produrranno inoltre un sensibile incremento della produzione di energia verde, consentendo la connessione di nuovi impianti eolici per circa 1.000 MW.” In realtà non si tratta di un incremento di produzione, poichè Terna si limita alla distribuzione, ma del fatto che la nuova rete elettrica sarà pronta per accogliere l’immissione sul territorio di nuovi impianti, realizzati da altri. Sempre se li realizzeranno.

Il punto più importante del progetto è quello a proposito delle perdite, di cui si è parlato all’inizio. Secondo il comunicato emesso da Terna: “a regime si avrà infatti una riduzione delle perdite tecniche di rete per circa 300 milioni di kilowattora, pari al consumo annuo di 100.000 famiglie.”

Ovviamente tutto questo non significa che i tralicci dell’alta tensione spariranno. Oltre quei 4.800 rimossi, gli altri saranno rinnovati, secondo nuovi criteri. Sull’impatto ambientale della nuova struttura della distribuzione elettrica, l’amministratore delegato di Terna Flavio Cattaneo dichiara: “Terna ha già lanciato alcuni concorsi internazionali d’architettura per ottenere piloni e tralicci esteticamente sostenibili”.

Naturalmente ci si augura che la sostenibilità non si limiti all’estetica, ma in ogni caso sono stati seguiti con puntualità i criteri della Valutazione Ambientale Strategica attraverso 40 mila ore di concertazione con enti locali ed istituzioni. Staremo a vedere se, quando il progetto verrà realmente implementato sul territorio, tutte le promesse saranno mantenute. Nel mondo politico, il ministro Pecoraro Scanio si mostra entusiasta: “Quando si parla di efficienza energetica dobbiamo riferirci anche e soprattutto all’efficienza delle infrastrutture di trasporto dell’energia perché l’energia in Italia c’è, ma la bruciamo e poi la buttiamo”.

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