Arriva South Stream, l’autostrada del gas

26 giugno 2007

Pubblicato su Altrenotizie

Eni e Gazprom hanno firmato un memorandum d’intesa per la realizzazione del South Stream, un sistema di nuovi gasdotti che collegheranno la Russia all’Unione Europea attraverso il Mar Nero. La firma è avvenuta alla presenza del ministro dell’Industria ed Energia della Federazione Russa Viktor  Khristenko e del ministro dello Sviluppo Economico Pierluigi Bersani. L’accordo prevede lo studio della fattibilità tecnica ed economica del progetto, le opportune verifiche politiche e regolatorie e definisce le modalità di collaborazione tra le due società per la progettazione, il finanziamento, la costruzione e la gestione tecnica e commerciale dei gasdotti. L’opera sarà imponente: 900 chilometri di gasdotti per un investimento che non è ancora stato quantificato, ma indicato dell’ordine di molti miliardi di dollari. Il gas russo arriverà in Europa attraverso due linee in Austria, ed in Italia attraverso due linee sottomarine che raggiungeranno la penisola in Puglia, nella zona di Otranto, scorrendo sotto il Mar Nero e l’Adriatico, toccando profondità di oltre 2000 metri, con una capacità stimata di circa 30 miliardi di metri cubi.

Un progetto tra i più audaci mai presentati nel settore che, nell’arco di tre anni (tempo di realizzazione previsto) potrebbe assumere un ruolo centrale per far fronte alla crescente domanda energetica  europea. “Il progetto South Stream”, ha affermato il ministro Bersani, “mira a rafforzare la sicurezza energetica in Europa. L’accordo firmato oggi costituisce un’ulteriore testimonianza della partnership strategica tra l’Italia e la Federazione Russa che noi intendiamo mettere al servizio dei rapporti di collaborazione tra l’Unione  Europea e la Russia”. “La funzione dei governi dei paesi coinvolti o potenzialmente interessati al South Stream consiste nel costituire un sistema efficiente di accordi che sostengano l’iniziativa delle compagnie russa e italiana. E’ proprio questo il caso in cui gli obiettivi di un progetto industriale coincidono con gli interessi dei governi e della popolazione di una lunga serie di paesi europei”, ha detto il ministro dell’Industria e Energia della Federazione Russa Viktor Khristenko.

“South Stream”, ha dichiarato Paolo Scaroni, Amministratore Delegato di Eni, “è il terzo pilastro dell’accordo strategico firmato da Eni e Gazprom nel novembre 2006. Questa ulteriore intesa nel midstream del gas potrà consentire a Eni di valorizzare ulteriormente le recenti acquisizioni degli asset di Arctic Gas e Urengoil. Il progetto South Stream, il cui sviluppo rispetta tutti i requisiti di sostenibilità a partire da quella ambientale, rappresenterà un passo decisivo per il rafforzamento  della sicurezza di approvvigionamento energetico di tutta l’Europa”.

Alexandr Medvedev, Vice Presidente di Gazprom, ha commentato: “La firma del memorandum è un atto concreto finalizzato allo sviluppo della partnership strategica tra Gazprom e Eni, una partneship di lungo termine e di reciproco vantaggio. Si tratta di un ulteriore passo verso la concreta realizzazione della strategia di Gazprom volta a diversificare le vie delle forniture del gas russo verso i paesi europei e a garantire notevolmente la sicurezza energetica dell’Europa”.

I tempi per la realizzazione di South Stream sono di tre anni, dopo aver ottenuto tutte le autorizzazioni necessarie. “Ci auguriamo di partire il più presto possibile. Riteniamo”, assicura Scaroni, “che ci vorranno mesi per gli studi di fattibilità, non anni” e prevede l’inizio dei lavori per il 2008-2009. Proprio dal punto di vista ambientale, saltano all’occhio alcuni interrogativi: è una grande autostrada del gas fra Russia ed Europa che attraverserà il Mar Nero da est a ovest, dalla costa russa a quella bulgara. Novecento chilometri di tubi sottomarini in fondali fino a duemila metri che potranno trasportare fino a trenta miliardi di metri cubi di gas. Dalla Bulgaria si dividerà in due pipeline, una diretta verso il centro Europa via Bulgaria, Ungheria ed Austria, l’altra punterebbe verso Otranto lungo Macedonia ed Albania.

Sulla stima dell’investimento, Scaroni è stato generico, ma ha parlato di un impegno confrontabile con quello necessario a realizzare un’intera filiera di produzione e trasporto di gas naturale: navi, impianti di liquefazione, rigassificatori. Impianti, quelli di rigassificazione, che già ora gravano da un punto di vista ambientale sulla regione Puglia, con il rischio che divengano poi obsoleti quando South Stream entrerà in funzione. Ci si augura che il progetto di South Stream porti ad una revisione dei progetti di rigassificazione almeno nella zona di Brindisi.

In realtà, la vera protagonista dell’accordo è ancora una volta Gazprom, che si assicura un ruolo chiave nella geopolitica energetica europea. South Stream permettera al gas russo di evitare l’attraversamento di nazioni non gradite come la Turchia, e consoliderà la presenza di Gazprom nel mercato energetico europeo. Un rapporto forte e consolidato lega Gazprom, interamente sotto controllo statale, al governo di Mosca, al punto che il numero due della società, Alexander Medvedev, è anche il numero due del Cremino. Ed è proprio sul piano energetico che la Russia si gioca il proprio ruolo di potenza internazionale: visti i consumi dell’Occidente, il gas ad oggi è l’unica alternativa credibile al petrolio, poiché le produzioni eolica, fotovoltaica e idroelettrica non sono in grado di competere  né sul piano dei costi né su quello della quantità.

Significativa, a tale proposito, è la soddisfazione esternata da Vladimir Putin nel corso di un summit che a Zagabria fra i paesi dell’Europa sudorientale sull’energia: “Senza dubbio South Stream permetterà di migliorare l’approvvigionamento energetico verso l’Europa, e siamo molto soddisfatti che, insieme al governo italiano e a quello russo, anche la Commissione europea abbia manifestato il suo sostegno a favore di questo progetto”.

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